Genie Crute

Achilles Tendon Rupture Treatment Rehabilitation




Overview
Achilles Tendon
The largest tendon in the body, the Achilles tendon is a cord connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone. Also called the ?cord of Achilles,? the tendon gets its name from the hero of Greek myth. According to legend, Achilles was invulnerable everywhere but his heel, where a poisoned arrow eventually felled him. Because the blood supply to the Achilles tendon lessens with age, the tendon becomes vulnerable to inflammation and rupture, a fact which makes it a true ?Achilles heel? for many older patients. Achilles tendon injuries are also common among athletes and those who engage in more physically demanding activity.

Causes
Your Achilles tendon helps you point your foot downward, rise on your toes and push off your foot as you walk. You rely on it virtually every time you move your foot. Rupture usually occurs in the section of the tendon located within 2.5 inches (6 centimeters) of the point where it attaches to the heel bone. This section may be predisposed to rupture because it gets less blood flow, which may impair its ability to heal. Ruptures often are caused by a sudden increase in the amount of stress on your Achilles tendon. Common examples include increasing the intensity of sports participation, falling from a height, stepping into a hole.

Symptoms
Symptoms usually come on gradually. Depending on the severity of the injury, they can include Achilles pain, which increases with specific activity, with local tenderness to touch. A sensation that the tendon is grating or cracking when moved. Swelling, heat or redness around the area. The affected tendon area may appear thicker in comparison to the unaffected side. There may be weakness when trying to push up on to the toes. The tendon can feel very stiff first thing in the morning (care should be taken when getting out of bed and when making the first few steps around the house). A distinct gap in the line of the tendon (partial tear).

Diagnosis
A physician usually can make this diagnosis with a good physical examination and history. X-rays usually are not taken. A simple test of squeezing the calf muscles while lying on your stomach should indicate if the tendon is still connected (the foot should point). This test isolates the connection between the calf muscle and tendon and eliminates other tendons that may still allow weak movement. A word of caution, Achilles tendon rupture is often misdiagnosed as a strain or minor tendon injury. Swelling and the continuing ability to weakly point your toes can confuse the diagnosis. Ultrasound and MRI are tests that can assist in difficult diagnosis. Depending on the degree of injury, these tests can also assist in determining which treatment may be best.

Non Surgical Treatment
Nonsurgical method is generally undertaken in individuals who are old, inactive, and at high-risk for surgery. Other individuals who should not undergo surgery are those who have a wound infection/ulcer around the heel area. A large group of patients who may not be candidates for surgery include those with diabetes, those with poor blood supply to the foot, patients with nerve problems in the foot, and those who may not comply with rehabilitation. Nonsurgical management involves application of a short leg cast to the affected leg, with the ankle in a slightly flexed position. Maintaining the ankle in this position helps appose the tendons and improves healing. The leg is placed in a cast for six to 10 weeks and no movement of the ankle is allowed. Walking is allowed on the cast after a period of four to six weeks. When the cast is removed, a small heel lift is inserted in the shoe to permit better support for the ankle for an additional two to four weeks. Following this, physical therapy is recommended. The advantages of a nonsurgical approach are no risk of a wound infection or breakdown of skin and no risk of nerve injury. The disadvantages of the nonsurgical approach includes a slightly higher risk of Achilles tendon rupture and the surgery is much more complex if indeed a repair is necessary in future. In addition, the recuperative period after the nonsurgical approach is more prolonged.
Achilles Tendonitis

Surgical Treatment
This condition should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, because prompt treatment probably improves recovery. You may need to be referred urgently to see a doctor in an orthopaedic department or accident and emergency department. Meanwhile, if a ruptured Achilles tendon is suspected, you should not put any weight on that foot, so do not walk on it at all. A new piece of research found that surgery and conservative treatment actually gave equally good results, when patients were also given early mobilisation treatment using a brace. If an operation is needed, there is a type of surgery called percutaneous, which uses smaller cuts than the traditional operation. This seems to reduce the risk of getting a wound infection. After surgery, a brace seems to be better than a plaster cast in terms of faster recovery and return to normal activities, a lower complication rate and patient preferences.
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Genie Crute

Author:Genie Crute
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